marble divider
Information Studies - MLA Citations

MLA Citation Style*

Your Works Cited List

This list, alphabetized by authors' last names, should appear at the end of your essay. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources you cite in the essay. Each source you cite in the essay must appear in your works-cited list; likewise, each entry in the works-cited list must be cited in your text.

Basic Rules: Authors' names are inverted (last name first); if a work has more than one author, invert only the first author's name, follow it with a comma, then continue listing the rest of the authors. The first line of each entry in your list should be flush left. Subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch. This is known as a "hanging indent." All references should be double-spaced. Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc. (This rule does not apply to "a," "an," "the," or to conjunctions, unless they are the first word of the title or subtitle.) Underline or italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films.


Fee, Elizabeth, and Daniel M. Fox, eds. AIDS: The Burdens of History. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988.

---. AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease. Berkeley: U of California P, 1992.

Grossberg, Lawrence, Cary Nelson, and Paula A. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. New York: Routeledge, 1992.

Hall, Stuart, et al. Policing the Crisis. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1979.

Kasson, John F. Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America 1776-1900. New York: Penguin, 1976.

"The Shepherd's Consort." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 1979. 2 vols.


--The authors' names should be given as they are on the title page of the text, in the order they appear.

--If the names of editors, translators or compilers appear on the title pages, then a comma should come after the last name to appear in the entry and the proper abbreviation (eds., trans., or comps.) should follow the comma.

--If an author or authors have their names on more than one text, check to see if the authorship of both texts is identical. If--and only if--the authors are in fact identical, then the listing for the second entry should be replaced with: three hyphens and a period.

--If no author can be identified, then a text is alphabetized by the first word of its title, excluding articles (like "the" and "a").

--Each part of the entry is followed by a period and two spaces.

--When other information is required, you will generally arrange it in the following order with a period and two spaces after each additional item: Author's last name, first name. Title of a part of the book. Title of the book. Name of the editor, translator, or compiler. Number of the edition used. Number(s) of the volume(s) used. Name of the series. Place of publication: name of publisher, date of publication. Page numbers. Other bibliographic information and annotation.


Gardner, Eric. "'This Attempt of Their Sister': Harriet Wilson's Our Nig from Printer to Readers." New England Quarterly 66 (1993): 226-46.

Magistrale, Tony. "Wild Child: Jim Morrison's Poetic Journeys." Journal of Popular Culture 26.3 (Winter 1992): 133-44.

Whitaker, Mark. "Getting Tough at Last." Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22.


--Listings for periodicals break down into two general categories--those for scholarly journals and those for magazines. The following is a general listing for a scholarly journal:

--If the journal is part of a series, the series number/name goes before the volume number. If the journal uses only issue numbers, the issue number goes in place of the volume number.

The following is a general listing for a magazine:

--Note that volume numbers are not listed for magazines. The article title is placed in quotation marks, and periodical titles should be underlined.

--Continuous pagination means that all of the issues of one volume have consecutively number pages; thus the first issue of the volume might contain pages 1-145 and the second issue of the volume might contain pages 146-290, etc. Note that with this type of journal (see the Gardner citation above), issue number are not necessary, and that the year is sufficient for the date.

--Non-Continuous Pagination means that each issue within a volume begins with page 1. Note here (see the Magistrale citation above) that the volume number (26) is followed by a period and then by the issue number (3); note also that the date is more specific than simply the year.

--The Whittaker citation is an example of a weekly periodical (magazine).


Burka, Lauren P. "A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions." MUD History. 1993. (5 Dec. 1994).

Franke, Norman. "SoundApp 2.0.2." 29 Apr. 1996. Personal e-mail. (3 May 1996).


--To cite files available for viewing/downloading via the World Wide Web by means of Lynx, Netscape, or other Web browsers, provide the following information: (1) the author's name (if known). (2) the full title of the document in quotation marks. (3) the title of the complete work if applicable in italics or underlined. (4) the date of publication or last revision (if available). (5) the full http address (URL) enclosed within angle brackets. (6) the date of your visit in parentheses.

--To cite electronic mail (E-mail) correspondence, provide the following information: (1)the author's name. (2) the author's e-mail address, enclosed in angle brackets. (3) the subject line from the posting in quotation marks. (4) the date of publication. (5) the kind of communication (i.e., personal e-mail, distribution list, office communication). (6) the date of access in parentheses.


Freud states that "a dream is the fulfillment of a wish" (154). Some argue that "a dream is the fulfillment of a wish" (Freud 154). The Romantic poets demonstrate a concern with the fleeting nature of life: "'My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: / Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!' / Nothing beside remains" (P.B. Shelley, "Ozymandias" ll. 10-12); and "The flower that smiles to-day / To-morrow dies" (P.B. Shelley, "Mutability" ll. 1-2).


--the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quote is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in your works-cited list

--if more than one author has the same last name, it is necessary to provide the author's initials (or even her or his full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. If you cite more than one work by a particular author, it will be necessary to include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting.

--To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks and incorporate it into your text. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference in the works-cited list.

--Place quotations longer than four typed lines in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented one inch from the left margin.

*Examples and instructions taken from (Purdue University) and (University of Illinois). For more information, see the MLA Handbook. The call number is LB 2369 .G53.

Compiled for PAC LRC
11/23/1998, C.Glass


  1. Correctness of MLA style
  2. Number of citations (35 minimum, up to around 45)
  3. Breadth of formats represented in sources listed
    • Encyclopedias
    • Almanacs
    • Dictionaries
    • Magazine articles
    • Journal articles
    • Newspaper articles
    • Electronic databases
    • Books
    • Govt. documents
  4. Quality of the annotations
  5. Quality and appropriateness of the sources chosen
  6. Currency or appropriateness of sources chosen (appropriateness here--or a reason for including an older source--would be the source's seminal nature; ie., it is a "key" work in the field)


line of books

Please send comments to: Colby Glass, MLIS

You are visitor to this page!
FastCounter by LinkExchange
Ozuna LRC | Information Studies | Philosophy On The Web | Palo Alto College marble divider