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I.S. - Becoming a Student

Becoming An Educated Person -- Quotes

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"Knowing how to study... doesn't come naturally" (Deese & Deese 1994, v).

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"Many students have difficulty making a successful transition from high school to college" (Kornhauser 1993).

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Success as a college student requires:

(Kornhauser 1993).

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Therefore, to be successful...

THIS is what you will have to do:

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Like athletics, academic skills have to be built up... no one can run a marathon without preparation (Kornhauser 1993).

Risko, Alvarez, & Fairbanks (1991) state that "college students are expected to be self-directed and to use available resources effectively" (195). They discuss the necessity of the student knowing how to manage time, how to organize their study environment, and how to use the library.

Every one of these areas--and more--will be covered in this tutorial. Right now, please notice that references are given for statements, and that citations for the references are listed at the end of this article. Much information on the Web is difficult to judge. Is it legitimate? Can you trust it?

Like any other information, you should expect, even demand, an explanation of why you should believe the information or conclusions being offered. The traditional approach is to give references to research like you will find in this tutorial.

If you wish to continue with this series of reading, go now to a discussion of why you should go to college.

NEXT: Why Go To College?

REFERENCES & Reading List

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Annis, L.F. (1983). Study techniques. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown.

Arlin, M. (1984a). "Time, equality, and mastery learning." Review of Educational Research 54, 65-86.

Arlin, M. (1984b). "Time variability in mastery learning." American Educational Research Journal 21, 103-120.

Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Beaman, A.L., Diener, E., Fraser, S.C., & Endresen, K.L. (1977). "Effects of voluntary and semivoluntary peer-monitoring programs on academic performance." Journal of Educational Psychology 69, 109-114.

Beneke, W.M., & Harris, M.B. (1972). "Teaching self-control of study behavior." Behavior Research and Therapy 10, 35-41.

Blimling, G.S., & Hample, D. (1979). "Structuring the peer environment in residence halls to increase academic performance in average-ability students." Journal ofcollege Student Personnel 20, 310-316.

Bloom, B.S. (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives (cognitive domain). New York: McKay.

Bloom, B.S. (1974). "Time and learning." American Psychologist 29, 682-688.

Bradley, A. (1983). Take note of college study skills. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Breivik, P.S. (1977a). Open admissions and the academic library. Chicago IL: American Library Association.

Breivik, P.S. (1977b). "Resources: The fourth R." Community College Frontiers 5, 46-50.

Breivik, PS. (1987). "The role of libraries in the search for educational excellence." School Library Media Quarterly 16, 45-46.

Brooks, C.C. (1984). Setting objectives for college reading and study skills (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Eddie Bowers.

Brown, W.F., & Holtsman, W.H. (1967). Survey of study habits and attitudes: Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.

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Carlson, D., & Millet, R.H. (1984). "Librarian and teaching faculty: Partners in bibliographic instruction." College & Research Libraries 45, 483-491.

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Carroll, J.B. (1967). A study of a model of school learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Center for Research and Development of Educational Differences.

Carroll, J.B. (1970). "Problems of measurement related to the concept of learning for mastery." Educational Horizons 41, 71-88.

Carroll, J.B. (1989). "The Carroll model: A 25-year retrospective and prospective view." Educational Researcher 11, 26-31.

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Deese, James, & Deese, Ellin K. (eds.). (1994). How to Study and Other Skills for Success in College. 4th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill.

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Fraser, S.C., Beaman, A.L., Diener, E., & Kelem, R.T. (1977). "Two, three, or four heads are better than one: Modification of college performance by peer monitoring." Journal of Educational Psychology 69, 101-108.

Fremouw, W., & Feindler, E. (1978). "Peer versus professional models for study skills training." Journal of Counseling Psychology 25, 276-288.

Frijda, N. (1978). "Memory processes and instruction." In A.M. Lesgold, J.w. Pellegrino, S.D. Fokkema, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Cognitive psychology and instruction. New York: Plenum.

Gal'Perin, PY., & Danilova, V.L. (1980). "Training students to think systematically in the process of solving minor creative problems." Voprosy Psihologii 1, 31-38.

Gettinger, M. (1984). "Achievement as a function of time spent on learning and time needed for learning." American Educational Research Journal 21, 617-628.

Gettinger, M. (1985). "Time allocated and time spent relative to time needed for learning as determinants of achievement." Journal of Educational Psychology 77, 3-11.

Gowin, D.B., (1987). Educating. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

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Gwinn, N.E. (1978). "The faculty-library connection." Change 10, 19-21.

Hefferman, T., & Richards, C.S. (1981). "Self-control of study behavior: Identification and evaluation of natural methods." Journal of Counseling Psychology 21, 361-364.

Heinrichs, A.S., & LaBranche, S.P (1986). "Content analysis of 47 college learning skills textbooks." Reading Research and Instruction 25(4), 277-287.

Henry, M., Dodson, S., Magnuson, B., Anderson, K., & Barrett, M. (1988). Electronic library instruction program. (ED 302 260).

Hofman, L.A. (1981). "Educate the educator: A possible solution to an academic librarian's dilemma." Journal of Academic Librarianship 7, 161-163.

Hogan, T.P., & Hendrickson, E. (1984). "The study habits of adult college students." Life Long Learning 1, 7-11, 20-27.

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Information requirements of research in the social studies. (1971). Bath, England: Bath University of Technology.

Joffe, I.L. (1982). Achieving success in college. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Johnson, R.E. (1975). "Meaning in complex learning." Review of Educational Research 45, 425-459.

Josey, E.G. (1971). "The role of the academic library in serving disadvantaged students." Library Trends 20, 432-444.

Kornhauser, Arthur W. How to Study: Suggestions for High School and College Students. 3rd ed. Revised by Diane M. Enerson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-45118-6.

Lawrence, G.H. (1980). "The computer as an instructional device: New directions for library user education." Library Trends 29, 139-152.

Lawrence P. (1953). "The preparation of case material." In K.R. Andrews (Ed.), The case method of teaching human relations and adminlstration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lyle, G.R. (1963). The president, the professor and the college library. New York: H.W. Wilson.

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Lyon, M.A., & Gettinger, M. (1985). "Differences in student performance on knowledge, comprehension, and application tasks: Implications for school learning." Journal of Educational Psychology 77, 12-19.

McPartland, J.D., & Karweit, N. (1979). "Research on educational effects." In H.J. Walberg (Ed.), Educational environments and effects: Evaluation, policy and productivity. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.

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Moran, B.B. (1984). Academic librarians: The changing knowledge centers of colleges and universities. Washington, DC: ASHE ERIC Higher Education Report No.8.

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Novak. J.D., & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Pauk, W (1984). How to study in college (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

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Rambler, L.K. (1982). "Syllabus study: Key to a responsive academic library." Journal of Academic Librarianship 1, 155-159.

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Richards, C.S. (1981). "Improving college students' study behaviors through self-control techniques: A brief review." Behavioral Counseling Quarterly 1, 159-175.

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Scales, A.M. & Biggs, S.A. (1983). Reading to achieve: Strategies for adult/college learners. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

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Schmelzer, R.V., Schmelzer, C.D., Figler, R.A., & Brozo, W.G. (1987). "Using the critical incident technique to determine reasons for success and failure of university Students." Journal of College Student Personnel 21, 261-265.

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Shepherd, J.F. (1982). The Houghton Mifflin study skills handbook. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Shepherd, J.F. (1984). RSVP reading study and vocabulary program (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Shepherd, J.F. (1987). College study skills (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Sherman, TM. (1984). Proven strategies for successful learning Columbus. OH: Merrill.

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Stucart, R.D. (1982). "Libraries: A new role?" In E. Seigel (Ed.), Books, libraries, and electronics: Essays on the future of written communication. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry.

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Wood, N.V (1986). College reading and study skills. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

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Please send comments to: Colby Glass, MLIS

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