Morocco aims for 100% renewable energy Captain Renault: What in heaven's name brought you to Casablanca?
Rick: My health. I came to Casablanca for the waters.
Captain Renault: The waters? What waters? We're in the desert.
Rick: I was misinformed.
Links on AfricaAfrica, links to resources on
AfricaFocus: Sights and Sounds of a Continent collection of digitized visual images and sounds of Africa; 3000 slides, 500 photographs, 50 hours of sound
Africa Subsidizing the West, says Museveni "The value of the coffee market is 70 billion dollars," he said. "We coffee producing countries get 5 billion. Who takes the remaining 65 billion? -- somebody else!"
African National Congress South Africa's National Liberation Movement
African Studies Center University of Pennsylvania; lots of links
African Voices from the Smithsonian... "Africa's history and peoples have profoundly influenced global culture and thought--and continue to do so today"
AFRICASERVICE huge amount of information; divided by country
All Africa News updated constantly; from the Africa-America Institute
Ancient Manuscripts from the Desert Libraries of Timbuktu
Art and Life in Africa many photos
Art, National Museum of African
Backpack Africa "Home of Africa's Backpackers"
Black Kingdoms of the Nile PBS special
Botswana, Exploring Geographia; basic information
BOTSWANA page of links
Bush's Africa Agenda excerpts from article by Emira Woods and William D. Hartung
Center for Electronic Resources in African Studies text and multimedia from University of Iowa
Centre for Asian & African Literatures comparative research
Challenging Conventional Wisdom: Smallholder Perceptions and Experience of Land Access and Tenure Security in the Cotton Belt of Northern Mozambique a case study of recent developments in the tenure land system
Chronology of African Events from AD 1 forward
Congo Expedition, 1909-1915, American Museum
Cote D'Ivoire Geographia; basic information
Country Studies/Area Handbooks Library of Congress
Dining Tips Unlimited: Africa displays restaurant menus
Egypt basic information
Egypt, Sinai basic information from Geographia
From the Sahara to the Serengeti PBS special on Africa
Geographia: Introduction to Africa
Ghana basic information from Geographia
The Guardian Nigerian news paper
Historical Text Archive: Africa articles, books, links
Hopes on the Horizon: Africa in the 1990s PBS video and audio clips and much more
Independent States in the World U.S. State Department; includes dependencies, spellings, and country background notes
Kenya basic information from Geographia
KenyaWeb news from Africa
Mali basic information from Geographia
MOROCCO page of links
Morocco basic information from Geographia
Namibia basic information from Geographia
PARLINE Database country and region parliaments
Peace Corps Photographs
Photographs of Mali, Africa
Science in Africa online magazine about scientific issues concerning Africa
Sinai, Egypt basic information from Geographia
Scared at School: Sexual Violence Against Girls in South African Schools Human Rights Watch report
Slave Trade Archives Project original archive materials relating to the slave trade in countries throughout Africa and South America, including Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Brazil, and Nigeria
South Africa basic information from Geographia
The Story of Africa African History from the Dawn of Time... from an African perspective
Swaziland Page U. Penn.
Tanzania, Exploring basic information from Geographia
Uganda in Eastern DRC: Fueling Political and Ethnic Strife Human Rights Watch report
Urhobo Historical Society information about the Urhobo peoples of Southern Nigeria
Wonders of the African World PBS with Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Zimbabwe basic information from Geographia
Articles [latest first]
America's Scramble for Africa By Finian Cunningham October 21, 2017
The ugly row over whether President Trump disrespected the young widow of a fallen American soldier has overshadowed a bigger issue. That is, the increasing number of US military operations across the African continent.
In all the media controversy over what Trump said or didn't say, questions about what US troops are doing in Niger are unfortunately overlooked. Not just Niger, but in dozens of other African nations.
It is reckoned from US army data that there are thousands of special forces and other military personnel carrying out up to 100 missions at any given time in some 24 African states. That's nearly half of all the countries comprising the African continent.
The deployment of US troops in Africa was first stepped up under President GW Bush when his administration formed AFRICOM in 2007, a whole US command dedicated to the continent. Subsequently, under President Barack Obama, the American deployments increased further. Now under President Trump, the US force presence is reckoned to be at its highest level yet.
The official explanation is that American soldiers, Navy and air power, as well as CIA clandestine operations, are there to counter terror groups, who could plan and mount strikes on Europe and North America.
But there is more than a suspicion that the US is using the cover of combating terrorism to conceal and project its real objective, which is to exert its influence over African nations. One observation for raising doubts is that the problem of these terror groups has actually grown more rapidly after the US troops started to be deployed in larger numbers under President Bush. Echoes of Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria here.
When Trump hosted several African leaders last month in New York during the UN annual congress he told them that his American investor friends were hotfooting it to the continent "to make a lot of money". Typical of Trump, everything is reduced to filthy lucre.
The trouble for America and other Western powers is that China has stolen a march on them in terms of cultivating investments and harnessing resources across Africa. Under President Xi Jinping, China has investment projects worth an estimated $60 billion in dozens of African countries. This is way ahead of what the Americans or Europeans have invested.
Earlier this year, China opened its first ever overseas military base, in the East African country of Djibouti. That's still small news compared with the reported 46 military bases that the US has across the continent.
The big difference between the US and China is that while Beijing has devoted most of its resources to developing trade and industry with African states, Washington's emphasis is on military relations.
China has gained much respect from African nations for its genuine commitment to partnership. It is bringing capital and technology to Africa and gaining access to natural resources of oil and gas, metals and other minerals. Unlike the old European colonialism, China's involvement in Africa is based on partnership and mutual development. For access to raw materials, China has built schools, universities, telecommunications and transport networks, which are all helping the continent reach its huge potential.
The Americans like the Europeans are stuck in an "extractive mentality" when it comes to Africa. But today, American capitalism is broke. It can't even invest in its own nation never mind Africa.
Trump speaks for American capitalism. Knowing the rich resources possessed in Africa's earth and its people, Trump salivates over the prospect of making big bucks. But the Americans aren't prepared to spend the investment money needed to harness the rewards. That's where the US military muscle comes in. In place of proper economic investment, diplomacy and political partnership, Washington is using its military edge to encroach on Africa — under the guise of "fighting terrorism".
That's not to say that American troops aren't confronting terror groups. They are, as the deadly firefight in Niger shows.
But the real purpose for increasing US military strength in Africa is about securing American strategic economic interests "on the cheap" by using military power as opposed to deploying financial commitment in the way that China has.
America's militarism in Africa will bring no benefit to the countries. As in other parts of the globe, the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, the pattern clearly shows that terrorism burgeons where US military operations occur.
Besides, American capitalism is not motivated by developing Africa for its people. It's about making profits for Wall Street and rich investors like Trump.
The real danger is that this militarism will lead to another point of confrontation with China if the latter's economic interests are threatened, as they were when US and NATO forces bombed Libya in 2011 for regime change.
It's such a crying shame that American widows are having their hearts broken for a mission that is totally fraudulent — and getting no thanks for it from a callous Commander-in-Chief.
U.S. Expands Secret Wars In Africa By Justin Yun June 04, 2016 "Information Clearing House" - "Chimes"
The secret expansion of U.S. military bases and special operations in Africa has initiated a new and lightweight style of warfare and welcomes the next phase of American military imperialism. Unlike the highly publicized U.S. military “pivot to Asia,” the proliferation of drones, special ops, mercenary spies, classified bases, proxy fighters and cyber warfare constitute what the journalist Nick Turse calls a “new light-footprint Obama doctrine”
On any day, elite U.S. forces conduct covert missions in an estimated 70 to 90 countries. According to Turse, special forces have been sent to an unprecedented 147 countries — 75 percent of the world’s nations last year alone. This is a 145 percent increase from the rate of operations conducted under the Bush administration.
Wars conventionally fought by large infantry forces and full-scale invasions of foreign countries have made way for a new style of fighting — one that has become increasingly dependent on special forces, drones and private defense contractors. Because of the confidential nature of special ops, the Pentagon can essentially keep foreign military involvement secret from the American public.
JSOC — a clandestine organization that carries out kill/capture missions. JSOC has been called “an almost industrial-scale counterterrorism killing machine” by counterinsurgency advisor John Nagl and many have described it as the president’s “private assassination squad.” The group reports directly to the White House. It is the military’s secret military.
With military presence in 53 of 54 of Africa’s nations, the American empire has emerged to pick up where the former European colonial powers have left off.
"Angola... Twenty-seven years of civil war fueled by a lethal mix of oil, diamonds and cold war enemies have left one of Africa's potentially richest countries a shambles...
"..the United States imports more oil from Angola than from Kuwait. But 70 percent of Angolans live in poverty. Eighty percent have no access to basic medical care. Average life expectancy is only forty years, and three in ten children will die before reaching their fifth birthday.
"It's no secret that Angola's leaders are siphoning off huge amounts of state money. But lurking beneath the sinister statistics and corrosive corruption is the murky involvement of Western governments and multinational oil companies" (Daphne Eviatar. "Africa's Oil Tycoons." The Nation, April 12, 2004, 11-16).
Africa, Shameful U.S. Acts"During the Cold War years (1950-1989), the U.S. sent $1.5 billion in arms and training to Africa thus setting the stage for the current round of conflicts.. These U.S.-funded wars have been responsible for the deaths of millions of Africans and the subsequent displacement, disease, and starvation of many millions more" (Phillips, Peter, and Project Censored. Censored 2004: The Top 25 Censored Stories. NY: Seven Stories Press, 2003: 64).
"The U.S... the IMF, World Bank, and G8.. Structural Adjustment programs (SAPs).. require that governments reduce public spending (especially on health, education, and food/storage).. creating a domino effect of disasters (prolonged famine, conflict, abject poverty, and environmental exploitation) linked to an estimated 21 million deaths and, in the process, transferring hundreds of billions of dollars to the West" (65).
"The U.S. has created a holocaust in Africa by backing wars and imposing structural adjustment programs.." (Phillips, Peter, and Project Censored. Censored 2004: The Top 25 Censored Stories. NY: Seven Stories Press, 2003: 66).
Asad Ismi "The United States government is the greatest purveyer of violence in the world" -Martin Luther King, Jr.
"In 1998, U.S. military-trained leaders of Rwanda and Uganda invaded the mineral-rich areas of the Congo... installed illegal colonial-style governments which continue to receive millions of dollars in arms and military training from the United States" (157).
"Since 1998, the number of dead in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) exceeds FOUR MILLION people... Torture is commonplace" (158).
"The U.S. is the leading arms dealer in central Africa" (Phillips, Peter, and Project Censored. Censored 2004: The Top 25 Censored Stories. NY: Seven Stories Press, 2003: 159).
"There are over 3,000 distinct languages spoken on the African continent" (www.gullible.info, April 13, 2005).
"There are those, not the least in black Africa, who fear this massive debt forgiveness will produce the same circumstances that have followed smaller, piecemeal debt write-offs... Venal or incompetent governments have merely run up a pile of new debt, squandering the money on unrealistic projects while creaming off spare cash into Swiss bank accounts. In the end, a fair degree of responsibility rests with the lenders" (Editorial, Saudie Arabia. Arab News, June 12, 2005).
"Doubling aid and cancelling Africa's debt are theoretically very attractive proposals. They fail because they are based on a misguided faith that you can rely on human altruism to end human misery...
"Tony Blair and his... partners would do the continent a ton of good if they promoted... trade and investment relationships, [rather] than this claptrap of kindness and generosity through more aid, debt forgiveness and rmoval of agricultural subsidies" (Andrew M. Mwenda. Sunday Monitor, Uganda, June 12, 2005).
"Africa is not poor. As [Mr. Blair's] Africa commission report has noted, Africa is rich in human and natural resources... The problem is that Africans have been forced to live in nation states whose raison d'etre was not to enrich the lives of the people within them; rather, they existed to transfer the resources abroad...
"The struggle of Africa is the struggle to share resources both within and without the continent. Africa must be a part of a world economic order that is built on mutual respect and not exploitation. Africa needs the rest of the world as much as the world needs Africa" (Ken Wiwa. Observer, June 12, 2005).